“Valorizing racial boundaries: Hegemony and conflict in the racialization of Filipino migrant labour in the United States”

Rick Baldoz’s Third Asiatic Invasion is an excellent text. Here is an earlier piece of work.

“Domestic Workers and Their Children March For Rights”

Given that this course deals with the struggles of contemporary Filipino immigrant workers, I found this article on domestic workers especially relevant.

The only thing I might add, however, and this is a point that I think keeps getting missed in much of the scholarly analysis of domestic workers organizing efforts including this one and the efforts led by the Domestic Workers’ United based in New York is the way that domestic worker activism in other parts of the world have had important impacts on the kinds of organizing taking place in the U.S. The work of the Asian Migrants Coordinating Body (AMCB)  based in Hong Kong, for instance,  has served as a model of exciting new forms of domestic worker organizing that has inspired many of the activists at the forefront of organizing in this sector here in the U.S. I discuss different kinds of migrant worker activism later in the quarter.

Historical Timeline

Filipino American Experience

Historical Timeline/Major Events


(additional items and details may be added over the course of the quarter as relevant)

1492               Columbus’ (failed) expedition to India.

1587               The landing of the Spanish galleon Nuestra Señora de Esperanza in Morro Bay marking the first presence of Filipinos (referred to in the ship’s logs as Luzones Indios) in the continental United States.

1760s             Filipino slaves escaped their Spanish colonial masters and settled in present-day Louisiana.

1790               First U.S. nationality act grants naturalized citizenship to “free white persons.” (Amended in 1870 to include “persons of African nativity and descent.”)

1839               “Manifest Destiny” genocide of First Nations/Native Americans

1848               Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ending the Mexican-American War and leads to U.S. possession of California. Gold is discovered. Chinese begin to arrive in large numbers.

1865               Ratification of the 13th Amendment ending the enslavement of Africans

1869-             Chinese recruited in large numbers to complete the transcontinental railroad.

1878               In re Ah Yup court ruling determines Chinese ineligible for citizenship because they are not “white” (first in a series of similar test cases).

1880               Section 69 of California’s Civil Code refuses marriage licenses to whites and “Mongolians, Negroes, mulattoes and persons of mixed blood.”

1881               Removal of Queen Liliuokalani from the throne in Hawaii.

1882               Chinese Exclusion Act

1898               Treaty of Paris: From Spain to the U.S.; Philippines is sold for $20 million; Annexation of Hawaii

1899               Rudyard Kipling’s “The White Man’s Burden”

1903               The Pensionado Act allowed Filipino college students to enter the U.S.

1907               Gentlemen’s Agreement

1907+             Systematic recruitment of Filipino agricultural workers and manual laborers to the U.S. (and Hawaii) was instituted. Their presence prompted anti-Filipino riots later. Filipino workers in the U.S. formed mutual support organizations and joined labor unions.

1917               Immigration Act

1924               Immigration Act

1931               Filipinos in the U.S. armed forces become eligible for U.S. citizenship

1933               Salvador Roldan vs. LA County, tests the anti-miscegenation laws. The anti-Filipino forces however soon get legislation added onto existing laws to include Filipino-white in anti-miscegenation prohibitions.

1934               Morrison vs. California holds Filipinos ineligible for citizenship.

1934               Tydings-McDuffie Act assigned an annual quota of 50 Filipinos to enter the U.S. per year and promised Philippine independence after a 10-year commonwealth period.

1935               The U.S. Congress passed Repatriation Bill to facilitate the expulsion of Filipinos from the U.S.

1941               The U.S. enters WWII.

1942-1945    Japanese occupation of the Philippines.

1944               Bretton-Woods and the establishment of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank

1945               WWII ends/Cold War Begins

1945-50         The War Brides Act allowed Filipinas married to U.S. Armed Forces personnel to settle in the U.S.

1946               The U.S. granted the Philippines “Independence”

1946               The Philippine Trade Act granted nonquota immigrant status to Philippine citizens, their spouses, and children who have resided in the U.S. for a continuous period of three years prior to November 30, 1941.

1946               The Filipino Naturalization Act (also known as the Luce-Cellar Act) conferred the right of naturalization and set annual immigration quota of 100 for Filipinos.

1946               The Rescission Act deemed that U.S. Filipino WWII veterans did not engage in military service and therefore did not deserve full veteran benefits.

1950-1953    Korean War

1961-1975    Vietnam War

1965               Immigration and Naturalization Act increased the quota for Filipinos through family unification and professional worker provisions.

1970               First Quarter Storm in the Philippines

1972               Marcos declared martial law in the Philippines forcing many to seek political refugee status in the U.S.

1974               The Marcos regime in the Philippine enacted the Labor Export Program (LEP) to systematically export Filipino workers as commodities to work in other countries and use their remittances to finance the underdeveloped Philippine economy.

1976               Health Professions Educational Assistance Act reduced influx of foreign doctors, nurses, and pharmacists. The Eilberg Act further restricted immigration of professionals.

1986               The Marcos regime collapsed after decades of people’s legal and underground resistance.

1986               The Immigration Reform and Control Act penalized employers for hiring undocumented workers while provided amnesty to the undocumented who could prove they worked and resided in the U.S. before 1982.

1989               Immigration Nursing Relief Act allowed foreign nurses holding temporary work visas to become permanent residents. Also created the H-1A visa which is a temporary visa for foreign nurses.

1990               Immigration Act new preference system introduced; three admission tracts including: family-sponsorship (excluding exempted categories of parents, spouses and children); employment-based (no longer tied to admissions linked to family-sponsorship) diversity visas. Also created visas for employment-creating investors

1996               The Illegal Immigrant Reform and Individual Responsibility Act (IIRIRA) moved to criminalize and deport U.S. Filipinos who are contract workers, immigrants, and U.S. citizens.

2001               Bombings of the WTC in NYC and the beginnings of the global “war on terror”

2002               The USA PATRIOT Act (Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism) and the Homeland Security Act allowed for the implementation of IIRIRA in an expanded manner through the dissolution of the INS and the establishment of the Department of Homeland Security. Within the Department of Homeland Security, the government’s immigration enforcement capacities were bolstered with the formation of ICE (Immigration and Customs Enforcement).

2003               Iraq War (extension of the “global war on terror”)

Drawn in part from several sources:

1)   Ating Kalagayan: The Social and Economic Profile of U.S. Filipinos by Peter Chua in conjunction with the National Bulosan Center and the National Alliance for Filipino Concerns. National Bulosan Center: 4021 69th Street, Suite A, Woodside, NY 11377, 2009. (items in BOLD)

2)    Asian American Studies, edited by Jean Yu-Wen Shen Wu and Min Song. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press. 2000.

3)   “U.S. Immigration Policies and Asian Migration,” by Paul Ong and John M. Liu in Contemporary Asian America: A Multidisciplinary Reader edited by Min Zhou and James Gatewood. New York: New York University. 2000.


“White Man’s Burden” by Rudyard Kipling

This famous poem, written by Britain’s imperial poet, was a response to the American take over of the Phillipines after the Spanish-American War.

Take up the White Man’s burden–
Send forth the best ye breed–
Go bind your sons to exile
To serve your captives’ need;
To wait in heavy harness,
On fluttered folk and wild–
Your new-caught, sullen peoples,
Half-devil and half-child.

Take up the White Man’s burden–
In patience to abide,
To veil the threat of terror
And check the show of pride;
By open speech and simple,
An hundred times made plain
To seek another’s profit,
And work another’s gain.

Take up the White Man’s burden–
The savage wars of peace–
Fill full the mouth of Famine
And bid the sickness cease;
And when your goal is nearest
The end for others sought,
Watch sloth and heathen Folly
Bring all your hopes to nought.

Take up the White Man’s burden–
No tawdry rule of kings,
But toil of serf and sweeper–
The tale of common things.
The ports ye shall not enter,
The roads ye shall not tread,
Go mark them with your living,
And mark them with your dead.

Take up the White Man’s burden–
And reap his old reward:
The blame of those ye better,
The hate of those ye guard–
The cry of hosts ye humour
(Ah, slowly!) toward the light:–
“Why brought he us from bondage,
Our loved Egyptian night?”

Take up the White Man’s burden–
Ye dare not stoop to less–
Nor call too loud on Freedom
To cloke your weariness;
By all ye cry or whisper,
By all ye leave or do,
The silent, sullen peoples
Shall weigh your gods and you.

Take up the White Man’s burden–
Have done with childish days–
The lightly proferred laurel,
The easy, ungrudged praise.
Comes now, to search your manhood
Through all the thankless years
Cold, edged with dear-bought wisdom,
The judgment of your peers!

FROM http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/kipling.asp